# Postdoc at Royal Holloway on Lattice-based Cryptography

I’m looking for a postdoc to work with me and others – in the ISG and at Imperial College – on lattice-based cryptography and, ideally, its connections to coding theory.

The ISG is a nice place to work; it’s a friendly environment with strong research going on in several areas. We got people working across the field of information security including several people working on cryptography. For example, Carlos Cid, Anamaria Costache, Lydia Garms, Jianwei Li, Sean Murphy, Rachel Player, Eamonn Postlethwaite, Joe Rowell, Fernando Virdia and me all have looked at or are looking at lattice-based cryptography.

A postdoc here is a 100% research position, i.e. you wouldn’t have teaching duties. That said, if you’d like to gain some teaching experience, we can arrange for that as well.

If you have e.g. a two-body problem and would like to discuss flexibility about being in the office (assuming we’ll all be back in the office at some post-covid19 point), feel free to get in touch.

# Postdoc at Royal Holloway on Lattice-based Cryptography

Update: 25/09/2020: New deadline: 30 October.

We are looking for a postdoc to join us to work on lattice-based cryptography. This postdoc is funded by the EU H2020 PROMETHEUS project for building privacy preserving systems from advanced lattice primitives. At Royal Holloway, the project is looked after by Rachel Player and me. Feel free to e-mail me with any queries you might have.

The ISG is a nice place to work; it’s a very friendly environment with strong research going on in several areas. We got people working across the field of information security including several people working on cryptography. A postdoc here is a 100% research position, i.e. you wouldn’t have teaching duties. That said, if you’d like to gain some teaching experience, we can arrange for that as well.

Also, if you have e.g. a two-body problem and would like to discuss flexibility about being in the office (assuming we’ll all be back in the office at some post-covid19 point), feel free to get in touch.

# Faster Enumeration-based Lattice Reduction

Our paper “Faster Enumeration-based Lattice Reduction: Root Hermite Factor $k^{1/(2k)}$ in Time $k^{k/8\, +\, o(k)}$” – together with Shi Bai, Pierre-Alain Fouque, Paul Kirchner, Damien Stehlé and Weiqiang Wen – is now available on ePrint (the work has been accepted to CRYPTO 2020). Here’s the abstract:

We give a lattice reduction algorithm that achieves root Hermite factor $k^{1/(2k)}$ in time $k^{k/8 + o(k)}$ and polynomial memory. This improves on the previously best known enumeration-based algorithms which achieve the same quality, but in time $k^{k/(2e) + o(k)}$. A cost of $k^{k/8 + o(k)}$ was previously mentioned as potentially achievable (Hanrot-Stehlé’10) or as a heuristic lower bound (Nguyen’10) for enumeration algorithms. We prove the complexity and quality of our algorithm under a heuristic assumption and provide empirical evidence from simulation and implementation experiments attesting to its performance for practical and cryptographic parameter sizes. Our work also suggests potential avenues for achieving costs below $k^{k/8 + o(k)}$ for the same root Hermite factor, based on the geometry of SDBKZ-reduced bases.

# The Approximate GCD Problem

Steven Galbraith once told me that he expects mathematicians to teach RSA long after the world has migrated to post-quantum algorithms; because it is so easy to explain. Arguably, LWE is easier to explain than RSA but the Approximate Greatest Common Divisors problem (AGCD) is even easier than that and requires only scalars. Thus, it is a nice post-quantum alternative for an undergraduate mathematics module. Someone should perhaps write an undergraduate mathematics textbook introducing cryptography using Approximate Common Divisors.

# Postdoc at Royal Holloway on Lattice-based Cryptography

We are looking for a postdoc to join us to work on lattice-based cryptography. This postdoc is funded by the EU H2020 PROMETHEUS project for building privacy preserving systems from advanced lattice primitives. At Royal Holloway, the project is looked after by Rachel Player and me. Feel free to e-mail me with any queries you might have.

The ISG is a nice place to work; it’s a very friendly environment with strong research going on in several areas. We got people working across the field of information security including several people working on cryptography. A postdoc here is a 100% research position, i.e. you wouldn’t have teaching duties. That said, if you’d like to gain some teaching experience, we can arrange for that as well.

Also, if you have e.g. a two-body problem and would like to discuss flexibility about being in the office, feel free to get in touch.

 Location: Egham Salary: £41,743 per annum – including London Allowance Closing Date: Thursday 12 September 2019 Interview Date: To be confirmed Reference: 0819-315

Full-Time, Fixed Term (until December 2021)

The ISG is seeking to recruit a post-doctoral research assistant to work in the area of cryptography. The position is available now until 31 December 2021.

The PDRA will work alongside Dr. Martin Albrecht, Dr. Rachel Player and other cryptographic researchers at Royal Holloway on topics in lattice-based cryptography. This post is part of the EU H2020 PROMETHEUS project (http://prometheuscrypt.gforge.inria.fr) for building privacy preserving systems from advanced lattice primitives. Our research focus within this project is on cryptanalysis and implementations, but applicants with a strong background in other areas such as protocol/primitive design are also encouraged to apply.

Applicants should have already completed, or be close to completing, a PhD in a relevant discipline. Applicants should have an outstanding research track record in cryptography. Applicants should be able to demonstrate scientific creativity, research independence, and the ability to communicate their ideas effectively in written and verbal form.

In return we offer a highly competitive rewards and benefits package including:

• Generous annual leave entitlement
• Training and Development opportunities
• Pension Scheme with generous employer contribution
• Various schemes including Cycle to Work, Season Ticket Loans and help with the cost of Eyesight testing.
• Free parking

The post is based in Egham, Surrey where the College is situated in a beautiful, leafy campus near to Windsor Great Park and within commuting distance from London.

Informal enquiries can be made to Martin Albrecht at martin.albrecht@royalholloway.ac.uk

We particularly welcome applicants from backgrounds which are typically under-represented in cryptography. We are committed to enabling a healthy work-life balance.

Closing Date: Midnight, 12 September 2019

Interview Date: To be confirmed

PS: I have no idea why our HR department thinks “free parking” is a perk worth mentioning.

# Two Postdocs on Lattice-based Cryptography

I have two postdoc positions available to work on lattice-based or post-quantum cryptography with me and other people here in the ISG. Currently, five PhD students work on post-quantum or lattice-based cryptography in the ISG, as well as two postdocs. Furthermore, several more students, staff and postdocs work across the field of cryptography in general. We have regular reading groups, research seminars, visitors and decent travel funding. Beyond cryptography, the ISG works across the field of information security, e.g. smart card/embedded security, malware analysis and social or cultural aspects of security. I guess what I’m saying is: yes, Royal Holloway is in Brexit-land, but the ISG is a good place to work. If you have any informal queries, feel free to get in touch.

 Location Egham Salary £37,345 per annum – including London Allowance Closing Date Friday 05 April 2019 Interview Date To be confirmed Reference 0219-081

The postdoc will work alongside Dr. Martin Albrecht and other cryptographic researchers in the ISG on topics in lattice-based cryptography and related fields. One post is funded by a joint grant between Royal Holloway and Imperial College (Dr. Cong Ling) for bridging the gap between lattice-based cryptography and coding theory (starting date: 15 April or later). The second post is funded by an EPSRC grant on investigating the security of lattice-based and post-quantum cryptographic constructions (starting date: 1 June or later). Applicants with a strong background in all areas of cryptography are encouraged to apply.

Applicants should have already completed, or be close to completing, a PhD in a relevant discipline. Applicants should have an outstanding research track record in cryptography. Applicants should be able to demonstrate scientific creativity, research independence, and the ability to communicate their ideas effectively in written and verbal form.

The ISG is one of the largest departments dedicated to information security in the world with 21 core academic staff in the department, as well as research and support staff. We work with many research partners in other departments and have circa 90 PhD students working on a wide range of security research, many of whom are fully funded through our Centre for Doctoral Training in Cyber Security. We have a strong, vibrant, embedded and successful multi-disciplinary research profile spanning from cryptography to systems security and social aspects of security. This vibrant environment incorporates visiting researchers, weekly research seminars, weekly reading groups, PhD seminars and mini conferences, the WISDOM group (Women in the Security Domain Or Mathematics) and we are proud of our collegial atmosphere and approach.

If you require any further information please email: recruitment@rhul.ac.uk. Informal enquiries can be made to Martin Albrecht at martin.albrecht@rhul.ac.uk.

• Please quote the reference: 0219-081
• Closing Date: Midnight, 5 April 2019
• Interview Date: To be confirmed

# Postdoc at Royal Holloway on Lattice-based Cryptography

I am looking for a postdoc to join us to work on lattice-based cryptography. This postdoc is funded by the EU H2020 PROMETHEUS project for building privacy preserving systems from advanced lattice primitives. At Royal Holloway, the project is looked after by Kenny Paterson and me. Feel free to e-mail me with any queries you might have.

The ISG is a nice place to work; it’s a very friendly environment with strong research going on in several areas. We got people working across the field of information security including several people working on cryptography. A postdoc here is a 100% research position, i.e. you wouldn’t have teaching duties. That said, if you’d like to gain some teaching experience, we can arrange for that as well.

Also, if you have e.g. a two-body problem and would like to discuss flexibility about being in the office, feel free to get in touch.

 Location Egham Salary £36,654 per annum – including London Allowance Closing Date Monday 17 September 2018 Interview Date To be confirmed Reference 0818-334

The ISG is seeking to recruit a post-doctoral research assistant to work in the area of cryptography. The position is available now and will run until the end of 2021.

The PDRA will work alongside Dr. Martin Albrecht and other cryptographic researchers at Royal Holloway on topics in lattice-based cryptography. This post is part of the EU H2020 PROMETHEUS project (http://prometheuscrypt.gforge.inria.fr) for building privacy preserving systems from advanced lattice primitives. Our research focus within this project is on cryptanalysis and implementations, but applicants with a strong background in other areas such as protocol/primitive design are also encouraged to apply.

Applicants should have already completed, or be close to completing, a PhD in a relevant discipline. Applicants should have an outstanding research track record in cryptography. Applicants should be able to demonstrate scientific creativity, research independence, and the ability to communicate their ideas effectively in written and verbal form.

In return we offer a highly competitive rewards and benefits package including generous annual leave and training and development opportunities. This is a full time fixed term post is based in Egham, Surrey where the College is situated in a beautiful, leafy campus near to Windsor Great Park and within commuting distance from London.

Informal enquiries can be made to Martin Albrecht at martin.albrecht@royalholloway.ac.uk.

To view further details of this post and to apply please visit https://jobs.royalholloway.ac.uk/vacancy.aspx?ref=0818-334. For queries on the application process the Human Resources Department can be contacted by email at: recruitment@rhul.ac.uk.

Closing Date: Midnight, 17th September 2018

Interview Date: To be confirmed

# NTT Considered Harmful?

In a typical Ring-LWE-based public-key encryption scheme, Alice publishes

$(a, b) = (a, a \cdot s + e) \in \mathbb{Z}_q[x]/(x^n+1)$

(with $n$ a power of two1) as the public key, where $s, e$ are both “small” and secret. To encrypt, Bob computes

$(c_{0}, c_{1}) = (v \cdot a + e', v \cdot b + e'' + \textnormal{Encode}(m))$

where $v, e', e''$ are small, $m$ is the message $\in \{0,1\}^n$ and $\textnormal{Encode}(\cdot)$ some encoding function, e.g. $\sum_{i=0}^{n-1} \lfloor \frac{q}{2} \rfloor m_i x^i$ . To decrypt, Alice computes

$c_{0} \cdot s - c_{1} = (v \cdot a + e')\cdot s - v \cdot (a\cdot s + e) + e'' + \textnormal{Encode}(m),$

which is equal to $e' \cdot s - v \cdot e + e'' + \textnormal{Encode}(m)$. Finally, Alice recovers $m$ from the noisy encoding of $m$ where $e' \cdot s - v \cdot e + e''$ is the noise. In the Module-LWE variant the elements essentially live in $\left(\mathbb{Z}_q[x]/(x^n+1)\right)^k$, e.g. $a$ is not a polynomial but a vector of polynomials.

Thus, both encryption and decryption involve polynomial multiplication modulo $x^n+1$. Using schoolbook multiplication this costs $\mathcal{O}(n^2)$ operations. However, when selecting parameters for Ring-LWE, we can choose $q \equiv 1 \bmod 2n$ which permits to use an NTT to realise this multiplication (we require $\equiv \bmod 2n$ to use the negacyclic NTT which has modular reductions modulo $x^n+1$ baked in). Then, using the NTT we can implement multiplication by

1. evaluation (perform NTT),
2. pointwise multiplication,
3. interpolation (perform inverse NTT).

Steps (1) and (3) take $\mathcal{O}(n \log n)$ operations by using specially chosen evaluation points (roots of one). Step (2) costs $\mathcal{O}(n)$ operations.

This is trick is very popular. For example, many (but not all!) Ring-LWE based schemes submitted to the NIST PQC competition process use it, namely NewHope, LIMA (go LIMA!), LAC, KCL, HILA5, R.EMBLEM, Ding Key-Exchange, CRYSTALS-KYBER, CRYSTALS-DILITHIUM (sorry, if I forgot one). Note that since steps (1) and (3) are the expensive steps, it makes sense to remain in the NTT domain (i.e. after applying the NTT) and only to convert back at the very end. For example, it is faster for Alice to store $s, e$ in NTT domain and, since the NTT maps uniform to uniform, to sample $a$ in NTT domain directly, i.e. to just assume that a random vector $a$ is already the output of an NTT on some other random vector.

This post is about two recent results I was involved in suggesting that this is not necessarily always the best choice (depending on your priorities.)

Warning: This is going to be one of those clickbait-y pieces where the article doesn’t live up to the promise in the headline. The NTT is fine. Some of my best friends use the NTT. In fact I’ve implemented and used the NTT myself.

# London-ish Lattice Coding & Crypto Meeting: 10 May 2017

Lattice-based approaches are emerging as a common theme in modern cryptography and coding theory. In communications, they are indispensable mathematical tools to construct powerful error-correction codes achieving the capacity of wireless channels. In cryptography, they are used to building lattice-based schemes with provable security, better asymptotic efficiency, resilience against quantum attacks and new functionalities such as fully homomorphic encryption.

This meeting — on 10 May 2017 — is aimed at connecting the two communities in the UK with a common interest in lattices, with a long-term goal of building a synergy of the two fields. It will consist of several talks on related topics, with a format that will hopefully encourage interaction.

# On dual lattice attacks against small-secret LWE and parameter choices in HElib and SEAL

My paper on solving small, sparse secret instances is now on ePrint. Here’s the abstract:

We present novel variants of the dual-lattice attack against LWE in the presence of an unusually short secret. These variants are informed by recent progress in BKW-style algorithms for solving LWE. Applying them to parameter sets suggested by the homomorphic encryption libraries HElib and SEAL yields revised security estimates. Our techniques scale the exponent of the dual-lattice attack by a factor of $(2\,L)/(2\,L+1)$ when $\log q = \Theta{\left(L \log n\right)}$, when the secret has constant hamming weight $h$ and where $L$ is the maximum depth of supported circuits. They also allow to half the dimension of the lattice under consideration at a multiplicative cost of $2^{h}$ operations. Moreover, our techniques yield revised concrete security estimates. For example, both libraries promise 80 bits of security for LWE instances with $n=1024$ and $\log_2 q \approx {47}$, while the techniques described in this work lead to estimated costs of 68 bits (SEAL) and 62 bits (HElib).

If you want to see what its effect would be on your favourite small, sparse secret instance of LWE, the code for estimating the running time is included in our LWE estimator. The integration into the main function estimate_lwe is imperfect, though. To get you started, here’s the code used to produce the estimates for the rolling example in the paper.

• Our instance’s secret has hamming weight $h=64$ and a ternary secret. We always use sieving as the SVP oracle in BKZ:

sage: n, alpha, q = fhe_params(n=2048, L=2)
sage: kwds = {"optimisation_target": "sieve", "h":64, "secret_bounds":(-1,1)}

• We establish a base line:

sage: print cost_str(sis(n, alpha, q, optimisation_target="sieve"))

• We run the scaled normal form approach from Section 4 and enable amortising costs from Section 3 by setting use_lll=True:

sage: print cost_str(sis_small_secret_mod_switch(n, alpha, q, use_lll=True, **kwds))

• We run the approach from Section 5 for sparse secrets. Setting postprocess=True enables the search for solutions $\mathbf{s}_1$ with very low hamming weight (page 17):

sage: print cost_str(drop_and_solve(sis, n, alpha, q, postprocess=True, **kwds))

• We combine everything:

sage: f = sis_small_secret_mod_switch
sage: print cost_str(drop_and_solve(f, n, alpha, q, postprocess=True, **kwds))